Spanish Adjectives Gender and Number Agreement

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Adjectives can precede or after nouns, or they can be used with verbs such as ser (“to be”) to describe nouns. But (with the exception of immutable adjectives) they will always correspond to the nouns that describe them both in number and gender. As the name suggests, descriptive adjectives describe a certain quality of a noun. The rule, which has no English equivalent, is that singular nouns are accompanied by singular adjectives and plural nouns are accompanied by plural adjectives. Masculine nouns are described or qualified by masculine adjectives, and feminine nouns are described or qualified by feminine adjectives. Adjectives ending in e or -ista do not change by sex. They coincide with male and female nouns in the singular, although they change for number. Spanish adjectives are usually listed in their masculine singular form in dictionaries, so it`s important to know how to match these masculine singular adjectives to the noun being described to you. Most adjectives end in o, e or a consonant in their masculine singular forms. Below are the rules for assigning these adjectives to their respective nouns in gender and number. Some adjectives are used for both sexes, especially those ending in -E or consonants, for example: “un libro interesante”, “un examen fácil”, “un chico optimista/una chica optimista”. Most adjectives must match the gender of the noun they change.

When we describe a masculine noun as “amigo”, we must also use a masculine adjective like “honesto”. Like nouns, Spanish masculine adjectives usually end in the vowel -O such as “bonito” and “creativo”, e.g. “El niño es bonito y gordo”. In addition, some words ending in -R are also considered masculine adjectives. For example, the noun las faldas (skirts) is plural and feminine, so all adjectives used to describe it are also plural and feminine. For example: the correspondence of nouns and adjectives is one of the most fundamental aspects of Spanish grammar: adjectives must correspond to the nouns to which they refer both in number and gender. Now you know how to form masculine and feminine adjectives. In the previous lesson, we explained the rules for placing adjectives and talked about some situations where they are used before or after nouns. In this lesson, we will learn another important feature called “concordancia del adjetivo y el sustantivo”, which is the Spanish noun-adjective agreement. Don`t worry, it will be easier than it sounds, although you will understand everything much faster if you already know the basics about the gender of nouns and the plural form of nouns.

In Spanish, adjectives must correspond to the noun they modify. How? Some adjectives can only be placed after nouns. They are those who express color, shape and origin. Place Spanish adjectives after the object they describe to distinguish it from other objects. I. Most Spanish adjectives end in o. To make it feminine, change the o to a. To put them in the plural, add -s. Add nouns that end with all other consonants: These adjectives will NOT change gender! Exception: For adjectives ending in z in the singular, replace the z with a c before adding the plural ending. We start this lesson with a video explaining the basic rules for using Spanish adjectives.

The person in the video only speaks Spanish, but you can also enable the subtitles (cc) below to translate into English or check the script. This video contains some examples and annotations that will be very useful to learn more about how Spanish adjectives work in the language. V. For adjectives ending in n or r, the feminine is created by adding an a, the masculine plural by adding -es and the feminine plural by adding -as. Peorand mejor are exceptions; they follow Article III. Today`s Spanish grammar topic is the correspondence of gender and numbers. Let`s get to the heart of the matter! Some adjectives can be used to describe masculine and feminine nouns. There are a lot of them. In Spanish, there are masculine and feminine adjectives. However, you will probably only see the masculine form of adjectives in dictionaries.

The “normal” form of adjectives, the form found in dictionaries, is singular and masculine. To make the adjective plural, follow one of these steps, which corresponds to the plural noun: Thanks to Lucas from our school in Seville, who taught us how adjectives work in Spanish. As mentioned earlier, Spanish adjectives usually have a singular form and a plural form. The rules are exactly the same as those used to form the plural of nouns. To illustrate this, for a sentence like “She is a pretty model” we would say “Ella es una modelo hermosa”, but for some models we have to say “Ellas son modelos hermosas”. Note that all words, including the subject pronoun and the verb SER, change so that there is an actual Spanish noun-adjective correspondence and the sentence has meaning. Un taco es una preparación mexicana que en su forma estándar consiste en una tortilla que contiene algún alimento dentro. (A taco is a Mexican preparation that, in its standard form, consists of a tortilla containing food. Su is a determinant or possessive adjective that changes with number but not with gender. Estándar is an immutable adjective – the same word would have been used with plural or masculine nouns.) On the other hand, when we describe feminine nouns such as CASA (house), we should use a feminine adjective such as BONITA (pretty) or ESPACIOSA (spacious), and not a masculine adjective such as BONITO or ESPACIOSO. That being said, the Spanish feminine adjectives are the same words with a slight change at the end from -O to -A, for example “Bueno” to “Buena”.

Some examples of common Spanish masculine adjectives are: Afortunado (luck), Alto (large), Bajo (short), Bueno (good), Estupendo (tall), Famoso (famous), Malo (bad) and Pequeño (small) Form plural adjectives in the same way you form plural nouns in Spanish. Place adjectives before nouns to emphasize the qualities of an object. Some adjectives that can be used before nouns are as follows. In Spanish, adjectives should correspond to the noun (or pronoun) they describe in gender and number. This means that if the noun describing an adjective is feminine, the adjective must be feminine, and if the same noun is also plural, the adjective will also be feminine AND plural. The adjectives grande (great), bueno (good), malo (bad), primero (first) and tercero (third) change when placed before singular nouns. To watch! How are masculine and feminine adjectives formed? Learn! But. Some adjectives (ending in [-ista], [-e] or [-l]) do not replace [-a] and [-o] with masculine/feminine. Be careful! The same rule applies to certain articles (the equivalent of “the”) and indefinite articles (a class of words containing “a”, “an” and “any”), which are sometimes considered types of adjectiveswww.thoughtco.com/noun-adjective-agreement-3078114. There are certain adjectives known as immutable adjectives that do not change form. Most of them are either unusual colors or words of foreign origin. An example is web as in the página web (the website) and las páginas web (the web pages).

Sometimes a noun can be used as an immutable adjective, but this practice is much less common in Spanish than in English. Spanish students will rarely feel the need to use immutable adjectives, but you should know that they exist so they don`t confuse you when you see them. Some Spanish adjectives used to describe masculine and feminine nouns are: Amable (friendly), Difícil (difficult), Fácil (light), Flexible, Paciente (patient), Verde (green). In addition, most numbers except the number one, which changes to ONE when used before a masculine noun, and to UNA before a feminine noun, e.g. “An amigo” and “Una amiga” It is possible to make some masculine adjectives feminine by adding -A at the end when words end in a consonant, but not in all cases. e.g. “Trabajador/Trabajadora” (correct) and “Popular/Populara” (false). Most nationalities also change gender, including some ending in consonants such as “español->española”. Most adjectives that end in a consonant do not change by gender, but change for number, as do adjectives that end in -e. Nouns ending in [-o] or [-a]: These adjectives change the ending depending on number and gender! Congratulations – you have completed the grammar quiz: Spanish Adjectives Gender Match. Adjectives ending in o in the masculine singular have four possible endings, one for the masculine, one for the feminine, one for the singular and one for the plural. These types of adjectives make up the majority of adjectives in Spanish.

In Spanish, adjectives in gender and number should match what they describe. 1.In English, adjectives are always found before the noun, but Spanish adjectives usually follow the noun they modify.